|Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (tdap) vaccine information provided|
For full article and vaccine information, go to http://www.workwell.und.edu/?page=ndpersupdate.
Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis) vaccine can protect adolescents and adults against three serious diseases. Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis are all caused by bacteria. Diphtheria and pertussis are spread from person to person. Tetanus enters the body through cuts, scratches, or wounds.
TETANUS (Lockjaw) causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all over the body. It can lead to “locking” of the jaw so the victim cannot open his mouth or swallow. Tetanus leads to death in up to 2 cases out of 10.
DIPHTHERIA causes a thick covering in the back of the throat. It can lead to breathing problems, paralysis, heart failure, and even death.
PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) causes severe coughing spells, vomiting, and disturbed sleep. It can lead to weight loss, incontinence, rib fractures and passing out from violent coughing, pneumonia, and hospitalization due to complications. In 2004 there were more than 25,000 cases of pertussis in the U.S. More than 8,000 of these cases were among adolescents and more than 7,000 were among adults. Up to 2 in 100 adolescents and 5 in 100 adults with pertussis are hospitalized or have complications.
Vaccines for Adolescents and Adults
• Tdap was licensed in 2005. It is the first vaccine for adolescents and adults that protects against all three diseases.
• Td (tetanus and diphtheria) vaccine has been used for many years as booster doses for adolescents and adults. It does not contain pertussis vaccine.
Vaccines for Children Younger than 7 Years
• DTaP vaccine is given to children to protect them from these three diseases. Immunity can fade over time, and periodic “booster” doses are needed by adolescents and adults to keep immunity strong. (DTP is an older version of DTaP. It is no longer used in the United States.)
• DT contains diphtheria and tetanus vaccines. It is used for children younger than 7 who should not get pertussis vaccine.
Who should get Tdap vaccine and when?
Adolescents 11 through 18 years of age should get one booster dose of Tdap. A dose of Tdap is recommended for adolescents who got DTaP or DTP as children but have not yet gotten a dose of Td. The preferred age is 11-12. Adolescents who have already gotten a booster dose of Td are encouraged to get a dose of Tdap as well, for protection against pertussis. Adolescents who did not get all their scheduled doses of DTaP or DTP as children should complete the series using a combination of Td and Tdap.
Adults 19 through 64 years of age should substitute Tdap for one booster dose of Td. Td should be used for later booster doses. Adults who expect to have close contact with an infant younger than 12 months of age should get a dose of Tdap. Waiting at least 2 years since the last dose of Td is suggested, but not required. Healthcare workers who have direct patient contact in hospitals or clinics should get a dose of Tdap. A 2-year interval since the last Td is suggested, but not required.
If vaccination is needed during pregnancy, ask your doctor. New mothers who have never received a dose of Tdap should get a dose as soon as possible after delivery.
Some people should not get Tdap vaccine or should wait.
Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of DTP, DTaP, DT, or Td vaccine should not get Tdap. Anyone who has a severe allergy to any component of the vaccine should not get Tdap. Some Tdap vaccines should not be given to people with a severe latex allergy. Anyone who went into a coma or had a long seizure within 7 days after a dose of DTP or DTaP should not get Tdap, unless a cause other than the vaccine was found.
What are the risks from Tdap vaccine?
A vaccine, like any medicine, could possibly cause serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. However, the risk of a vaccine causing serious harm, or death, is extremely small. If rare reactions occur with any new product, they may not be identified until many thousands, or even millions, of people have used the product. Like all vaccines, Tdap is being closely monitored for unusual or severe problems.
What if there is a severe reaction?
What should I look for?
Any unusual condition, such as a high fever or behavior changes. Signs of a serious allergic reaction can include difficulty breathing, hoarseness or wheezing, hives, paleness, weakness, a fast heart beat or dizziness.
How can I learn more?
• Ask your immunization provider.
• Call your local or state health department.
• Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
- Call 1-800-232-4636 or visit www.cdc.gov/nip
-- Amanda Eickhoff, Coordinator of Wellness, Wellness Center, firstname.lastname@example.org, 777-0210